El acta que del borde de la guerra a la Argentina y Chile thanks to the mediation of Juan Pablo II

Juan Pablo Segundo had made a call for peace and there were few hopes that both nations would listen, but he received a positive response from both dictators to intervene as a mediator.
Juan Pablo Segundo had made a call for peace and there were few hopes that both nations would listen, but he received a positive response from both dictators to intervene as a mediator.

The armed conflict between Argentina and Chile for the possession of the islands to the south of the Beagle Channel was at the point of breaking out. On December 21, 1978, the Argentine fleet, amid a storm, prepared to invade the Chilean islands. Evout, Bernevelt and Hornos, while Pinochet was receiving information about hostilities.

La guerra entre ambos países paréca inevitable y era solo una questionación de horas. El escenario no era nada alentador, a pesar de los efforts realized por los episcopados de Argentina y Chile para llegar a una solución pacifica. El 2 de December de 1978, con un profundo dolor, el Pope Juan Pablo II made a call for peace in the presence of the ambassadors of Argentina and Chile.

On May 2, 1977, it was officially announced el fallo arbitral sobre el litigio con Chile del Beagle Channel. The sentence of the five judges of the Court ad hoc, representatives of the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Sweden and Nigeria, había resultado favorable a las aspiraciones chilenas de extender su territorio al océano Atlántico. This resolution had provoked indignation in the military government, even among the politicians, among them, Raúl Alfonsín, Miguel Unamuno, Eloy Próspero Camus and Roberto Ares.

El Sumo Pontífice que había asumido hacía tan solo 3 meses, la noche del 21 de diciembre se había ido a dormir resignedo, cuando a la mañana siguiente received by Telex las respuestas de los dos dictatorores, Videla y Pinochet, que aceptaban su mediation y que si hacía una intervention fuerte both podridán detener la guerra. That same day, the Pope sent a message to invite peace to Argentina and Chile and announced that he would send a personal representative, Cardinal Antonio Samoré.

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Cardinal Antonio Samoré arrived five days after Juan Pablo II's call for peace
Cardinal Antonio Samoré arrived five days after Juan Pablo II’s call for peace

“I’ll see a light of hope at the end of the tunnel,” said Cardinal Antonio Samoré, the envoy of Juan Pablo II when he arrived in Buenos Aires five days after calling for peace and held the first meetings with the two delegations. countries.

Tras el llamado del Papa, pasaron 15 días de un silencio atronador. On January 8, 1979, the chancellors of both countries returned to the Vatican’s envoy, in the Taranco Palace, in the Uruguayan capital. Firmaron el Acta de Montevideo, en el que ambos gobiernos formally pedían al Vaticano su intervention para encontrar una solución pacifica y se comprometían a no hacer uso de la fuerza, retarnar al statu quo militar de comienzos de 1977 ya abstenerse de tomar medidas que turbasen la armonía entre las dos naciones.

The intervention of Juan Pablo II put the end of one of the most tense and long weeks of the year. Samoré fue clave en su role.

El envoyo del Papa dio su vida por conseguir la paz entre argentinos y chilenos, coincidieron varios analistas. Sin embargo, el cardinal Samoré no llegó a ver los logros de su excellente labor diplomaticática. He died without knowing that he had succeeded in fighting the war, “Los militares le hicieron mil trastadas y se murió del corazón. Durante tres años, los milicos argentinos se pasaron desairando al Papa. Cuando fue presenta su proposal, infinitely better than the Arbitral Award, Chile contested three days and Argentina never contested. El pobre se murió sin saber que había logrado detener la guerra. Finally, in 1984, both countries signed the Peace and Friendship Treaty“, Cuenta Passarelli, author of the book author of the book “El delirio armed”, que muestra los entretelones del conflict entre Argentinos y Chileanos.

He died without knowing that he had managed to stop the war between Argentina and Chile
He died without knowing that he had managed to stop the war between Argentina and Chile

The Treaty of Peace and Amity was finally signed by both countries in 1984 and Samoré was honored for his impecable performance with the name of Cardinal Samoré.

After his death, at the age of 77, on February 4, 1983, Cardinal Agostino Cassaroli succeeded him as Secretary of State in the Vatican.

Cronología de las negociaciones

Mayo de 1977: un arbitral fallo de la Reina Isabel II de Gran Bretaña ratified the Chilean possession of the Picton, Nueva and Lennox islands, signaling that the Beagle Channel ran in an east-west direction.

Enero de 1978: the Argentine government refused to acatar the fallo, declaring it “insanablemente nulo”.

January 24, 1978: after signing the Montevideo Act, the Vatican officially announced that Pope Juan Pablo II “had accepted mediar en el diferendo del Beagle”.

Septiembre de 1979: el Sumo Pontífice received a las dos delegaciones para marcarle las pautas de trabajo a fin de facilitarles las operaciones para alcanzar la paz.

December 12, 1980: the Pope presented his proposal to both States.

January 8, 1981: the Chilean government accepted the papal proposal.

March 25, 1981: Argentina formally rejected the papal proposal, but asked the Vatican for clarification.

Juan Pablo II together with then president Raúl Alfonsín, on his second visit to Argentina in 1987
Juan Pablo II together with then president Raúl Alfonsín, on his second visit to Argentina in 1987

Enero de 1982: el nuevo gobierno argentino, con Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri al mando, denunció el Tratado de Solución Judicial de Controversias, que habilitaba a cada uno de los dos países a concurrir a la Court Internacional de Justicia de La Haya en caso de litigios. Chile, por su parte, manejaba esta possibility como ultimo recurso.

September 15, 1982: After the Malvinas War, and after the fall of the Galtieri government, Chile and Argentina agreed to extend the Treaty.

10 de diciembre de1983: con el regresso de la democracy de la Argentina, the then president Raúl Alfonsín, estableció como uno de los objetivos primordiales encontrar una solución pacifica al problema del Beagle.

June 11, 1984: Cardinal Agostino Casaroli presented the last papal proposal. The emissary of the Vatican clarified that a rejection would mean the end of the mediation of Juan Pablo II. Finally, both parties agreed to accept the proposal.

November 29, 1984: Argentina and Chile signed the Treaty of Peace and Amistad, which gave the islands to the Transandino country. “Se va a la mediation, se discusse y se discusse, y sí, las islas eran chilenas. Ellos las habien habitado, tenien desde el siglo pasado colonos instalados. El laudo de la Corona fue exagerado, es cierto, pero ésa es otra questión”, analyzed Passarelli.

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